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Exploring the World of Coffee: Types Roasts and Drinks

Coffee is one of the most popular drinks worldwide, enjoyed by millions of people every day. Whether it’s a morning pick-me-up or a post-lunch indulgence, there’s no denying that coffee is an essential part of our daily routine.

With so many varieties of coffee beans and roasts available, it’s easy to become overwhelmed with the different options and which one to choose. In this article, we’ll explore the four main types of coffee beans and four levels of coffee roasts.

Types of Coffee Beans


Arabica coffee is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed types of coffee beans worldwide. Arabica coffee beans have a delicate flavor profile with a sweet and fruity taste.

It is also the most expensive coffee bean, grown in high altitude environments with specific soil conditions. It takes longer to roast Arabica coffee beans, as they are more delicate and require a gentle approach to bring out their complex flavor notes.

There are over 100 varieties of Arabica coffee, with the most popular being Ethiopian, Colombian, and Brazilian.


Robusta coffee beans are known for their strong, earthy taste with a higher caffeine content than Arabica coffee.

Robusta beans are primarily grown in low altitude areas, making it easy to cultivate and harvest, which is why it’s less expensive than Arabica coffee.

It has a thick crema and is used predominantly in espresso blends.

Robusta coffee beans have a higher acidity level, which can be useful in creating blends that require a sharp profile.

Some of the popular varieties of Robusta beans include Kaapi Royale and Vietnamese coffee.


Liberica coffee is a lesser-known type of coffee bean, but its flavor profile is distinct and loved by many. It has a smoky, woody, and floral taste, with a slightly bitter finish.

Liberica coffee is grown primarily in Asia, and in recent years, there has been a resurgence in its production. It has a unique shape, with asymmetrical beans that make it stand out from other coffee bean species.

Liberica coffee is commonly used in blends to add unique flavors and tones to the overall profile.


Excelsa coffee beans are often mistaken as a variety of Robusta beans. However, they are a different species, and it has a tangy, fruity taste with notes of dark chocolate.

Excelsa coffee is ideal for creating blends with other beans to create a complex flavor profile. It is grown primarily in Southeast Asia and is less common than other coffee species.

Types of Coffee Roasts

Light Roast

Light roast coffee beans have a light brown color and a mild taste. It is roasted for a shorter time, allowing for the natural flavor notes of the coffee bean to shine through.

Light roast coffee has a high acidity level, making it perfect for those who enjoy vibrant, fruity flavors. Some of the popular light roast coffee beans include Ethiopian Yirgacheffe, Colombian Supremo, and Guatemalan Huehuetenango.

Medium Roast

Medium roast coffee beans are roasted for a bit longer than light roast coffee beans, resulting in a medium-brown color. Medium roast coffee has a balanced flavor profile, with a slight acidity level and notes of chocolate and caramel.

It’s the perfect balance between the natural flavors of the coffee bean and the roast. Some of the popular medium roast coffee beans include Costa Rican Tarrazu, Brazilian Santos, and Sumatran Mandheling.

Medium-Dark Roast

Medium-dark roast coffee beans have a dark brown color and a slight oiliness to them. Medium-dark roast coffee has a full-bodied flavor, with notes of chocolate and roasted nuts.

The acidity levels are low, giving it a more robust flavor profile. Some of the popular medium-dark roast coffee beans include Mexican Chiapas, Ethiopian Sidamo, and Colombian Medellin.

Dark Roast

Dark roast coffee beans have a deep, dark color and a bitter taste. It’s often referred to as French roast or Italian roast, and it has a bold flavor profile.

Dark roast coffee is roasted for the longest time, resulting in a thick oil coating on the beans. The acidity level is low, giving it a sharp, smoky flavor.

Some of the popular dark roast coffee beans include Sumatran Mandheling, Guatemalan Antigua, and Brazilian Santos.


In conclusion, understanding the different types of coffee beans and roasts is essential in choosing the perfect cup of coffee. From the delicate flavors of Arabica to the robust taste of Dark Roast, there’s no one-size-fits-all when it comes to coffee.

Try out various coffee blends and roasts to find your perfect cup of coffee, and explore the unique flavors and tastes that each has to offer. Coffee has become a staple drink globally for its unique flavor profiles that give patrons a renewed sense of alertness.

With the diverse brewing methods and numerous coffee drink options available, it could be a challenge for coffee lovers to choose their ideal selection. In this article, we will explore the different types of brewed coffee and coffee drinks, providing insight into their flavors and techniques.

Types of Brewed Coffee

Drip Coffee

Drip coffee is the most common brewed coffee type and is made by using a coffee machine to filter hot water through coffee beans into a carafe or mug. The automatic drip machine is the most popular brewing method in households and coffee shops worldwide due to its simplicity.

The coffee granules are placed in a paper or metal filter, and hot water is poured over it, allowing the water to saturate the grounds, then dripping through the filter and into the carafe. The resulting coffee has a traditional taste that is both robust and mellow.

Pour-Over Coffee

Pour-over coffee, on the other hand, is considered one of the purist brewing methods because it employs a manual approach. To make pour-over coffee, the grounds are placed in a cone-shaped filter atop a carafe.

Steaming hot water is poured over the beans slowly and carefully. With pour-over coffee, the flavor of the coffee is extracted painstakingly as the water flows through the grounds.


An espresso is brewed by forcing pressurized hot water through finely ground coffee beans, resulting in a concentrated, strong, and syrupy coffee with a smooth crema. It is prepared with an espresso machine, which utilizes high pressure to extract the flavor compounds in the coffee beans quickly.

Espresso is usually served in “shots,” which are roughly 1-2 ounces (30-60 ml) of coffee, making it ideal for making various coffee drinks.

Cold Brew

Cold brew coffee is an immersion brewing method that requires coffee to soak in cold water for an extended time, typically between 12-24 hours. After infusion, the resulting drink is filtered, chilled, and served with ice cubes or milk.

Cold brew coffee is less acidic than other coffee brewing techniques, making it an alternative for those with heartburn or sensitive stomachs.

Types of Coffee Drinks


A cappuccino is made with one-third espresso, one-third steamed milk, and one-third milk foam. It’s traditionally served in a small cup with a sprinkle of cinnamon or chocolate powder on top.

Cappuccino has a robust coffee taste, with a creamy foam layer and a smoother finish from the steamed milk.


An espresso is a concentrated coffee drink made by pressing hot water through finely ground coffee beans with high-pressure extraction.

Espresso shots can be consumed on their own, but they are often used to create other coffee drinks, like lattes and cappuccinos, as their strong and robust flavor profile compliments other elements.


An Americano is made with a single or double shot of espresso added to a cup of hot water. It is meant to resemble traditional brewed coffee but with a more robust, bolder flavor profile.

Mixing the espresso with hot water balances the coffee’s strength, resulting in a smooth and satisfying coffee drink.


Cortado, also known as a Gibraltar, is made with one or two shots of espresso and a small amount of steamed milk. The steamed milk is added to cut the strength and acidity of the coffee, creating a unique, flavorful taste.

Red Eye

Red Eye coffee is made by adding a shot of espresso to a traditional drip coffee cup. This coffee drink was popular among truck drivers who needed a quick pick-me-up during long drives.

The high caffeine content in the espresso is meant to keep the drinker awake and alert for an extended period, making it perfect for an on-the-go coffee drink.


A latte is prepared by pouring one or two shots of espresso into a glass or cup containing steamed milk. The drink is finished with a milk foam layer on top and can be flavored with syrups like vanilla or caramel.

Latte is an excellent choice for espresso lovers who prefer the taste of milk while still enjoying the coffee’s strong-bodied flavor.


Macchiato is made by adding a splash of steamed milk to a shot of espresso. The milk is placed at the top of the espresso, creating a beautiful visual contrast and a smooth taste profile that complements any coffee drink.

Flat White

A flat white is prepared with a double shot of espresso and steamed milk, poured into a small cappuccino cup. The result is a strong coffee with a creamy finish, which is why it’s often referred to as “micro-foamed milk.” Flat white has gained popularity worldwide over recent years due to its rich flavor profile.

Caf au Lait

Caf au lait is made with a shot of drip coffee, with steamed milk added to fill the cup. The milk is generally served warm, not hot, giving the drink its distinct texture and taste.

Irish Coffee

Irish Coffee is a popular coffee drink prepared by adding a shot of Irish whiskey to strong brewed coffee, topped with whipped cream. The whiskey flavor enhances the taste of the coffee, balancing the sweetness of the whipped topping.

Turkish Coffee

Turkish coffee is made by boiling finely ground coffee in water, sometimes flavored with cardamom or cinnamon. After boiling, the coffee is served in a small cup, with the grounds sitting at the bottom of the cup.

It’s intended to be sipped slowly and not mixed, allowing the flavor profile to develop as you consume your drink.

Italian Coffee

Italian coffee is made with a dark roast, typically made with Arabica coffee, which is stronger and more robust than other coffee types. The coffee’s intense aroma and flavor profiles are mainly due to its more extended roasting duration at a higher temperature.

It’s the perfect choice for people who crave a bold, flavor-packed coffee. In conclusion, exploring the various types of brewed coffee and coffee drinks serves as an excellent opportunity to expand your coffee palate.

Try out different brewing methods and coffee drinks to find your ideal pick, allowing yourself to indulge in the diverse flavors, aroma, and caffeine boost that they have to offer. In conclusion, exploring the different types of coffee beans, roasts, brewed coffee, and coffee drinks allows coffee lovers to discover a world of diverse flavors and unique experiences.

From the delicate and fruity notes of Arabica to the bold intensity of a dark roast, there is a coffee to suit every preference. Whether you enjoy a classic cup of drip coffee or crave the complexity of a cappuccino, the options are endless.

By taking the time to understand the various elements that contribute to a great cup of coffee, you can elevate your coffee drinking experience and truly appreciate the art of coffee. So, grab a mug, savor the aromas, and embark on a journey of coffee exploration.

Cheers to the perfect cup!

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